While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global stocktaking that will take place every 5 years, the framework aims to provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The Agreement recognises the different circumstances of certain countries and notes, in particular, that the review of technical experts for each country takes into account that country`s specific reporting capacity.  The agreement also develops a transparency capacity building initiative to help developing countries put in place the institutions and processes needed to comply with the transparency framework.  NDCs become NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions – once a country formally accedes to the Agreement. There are no specific requirements on how countries should reduce their emissions or to what extent, but there have been political expectations about the nature and severity of individual countries` targets. As a result, national plans vary considerably in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country`s capacities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has pledged to level its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reduce CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil sources. The Paris Agreement, which has already been described as a historic agreement after its adoption, owes its success not only to the return of an enabling environment for climate action and sustainable development, but also to efforts to reshape the management of international climate negotiations.
The Paris Agreement is supported by new initiatives, all of which are adaptations to the difficulties identified in previous COPs. This innovative approach is based on four elements: the adoption of a universal agreement. Determination of each country`s national contributions to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. If the text of the agreement does not mention the content of these contributions, it obliges the signatory States to draw up a contribution plan, to implement it and to increase the amounts every five years. The participation of civil society in the negotiation process through the Programme of Action adopted in November 2016, which brings together civil society initiatives from 180 countries. In 2015, members of civil society were appointed high-level champions to facilitate civil society participation in the intergovernmental process. The financial commitment of developed countries to contribute $100 billion per year from 2020. This funding should give priority to the States most affected by the effects of climate change Although each Party`s NDC is not legally binding, Parties are required by law to track their progress through technical expert reviews in order to assess achievements against the NDC and identify ways to strengthen ambitions. .